Which countries offer digital nomad visas?

We explore 35 countries that offer digital nomad visas.

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Studies estimate that 22% of the American workforce will be remote by 2025.

The work landscape is evolving. More people are embracing a flexible, location-independent, and technology-enabled lifestyle that allows them to work outside of the traditional office environment. They are called digital nomads, and they are opting to work from anywhere in the world.

Taking the next step in your work-from-anywhere journey? Oyster's Global Employment Pass is chock-full of free resources to help remote workers like you.

This rise in global mobility has brought about an emerging trend—the digital nomad visa. The visa, which is also known as the remote work visa or the freelancer visa, allows remote workers to legally live and work in a foreign country for a given period.

A digital nomad visa is flexible to accommodate professionals who don’t want to be tied to a single work location. Unlike tourist visas, which only allow for a stay of up to 90 days, digital nomad visas typically have a duration ranging from a few months to a couple of years.  

The digital nomad surge has led to a lot of countries making digital nomad visas legally available. In this article, we’ll look at 35 countries currently offering a digital nomad visa, plus a few more looking to introduce it. But first, let’s explore the eligibility criteria for this visa.

Basic eligibility criteria for a digital nomad visa

The main purpose of a digital nomad visa is to give digital nomads a legal pathway to stay and work in a specific country on a temporary basis—something that’s illegal when on a tourist visa.

So, the main criterion to fulfill for a digital nomad visa is for the candidate to prove that they are a remote worker, as opposed to a tourist. However, even if this condition is met, an applicant may still need to meet additional requirements to qualify for the visa. Some factors that may determine eligibility include:

  • The applicant’s nationality
  • The applicant’s visa history
  • The applicant’s age (they have to be over 18 years old)
  •  Having a clean criminal record
  • Proof of income that meets the minimum required amount (supported by bank statements)
  • Having a health insurance policy

Now, onto the list of countries currently offering digital nomad visas.

Countries that offer a digital nomad visa

Digital nomad visa countries in Europe

1. Estonia

 Estonia was the first country in the world to offer a digital nomad visa to freelancers and remote workers in June 2020. Applicants can choose between a short-stay C visa (for stays of up to 90 days) or a long-stay D visa (stays longer than 90 days).

  • Cost: €80 for C visa and €100 for D visa
  • Length: 1 year
  • Minimum income required: €3,504
  • Cost of living ranking (with 1 being the most expensive country): 48 out of 137

2. Germany

Germany was the first European country to create a freelance visa (also known as the freiberufler visa). The visa allows freelancers and self-employed people to work in the country for up to three years.

However, only certain fields are eligible for the “freelancer profession” status in the country. The qualifying fields are:

  • Healthcare, e.g., doctors, dentists, and physiotherapists
  • Business counselling and tax, e.g., business economists, auditors, accountants, and tax consultants
  • Law, e.g., lawyers
  • Science and other technical fields, e.g., pilots, scientists, engineers, and architects
  • Linguistics and information transmission, e.g., writers, journalists, interpreters, artists, and translators

Visa information:

  • Cost: €60
  • Length: 3 months up to 3 years
  • Minimum income required: You have to prove self-sustainability and you need a German address. If you are over 45 years old, you must prove that you have enough provisions for old age.
  • Cost of living ranking: 32 out of 137

3. The Czech Republic

Zivno, The Czech Republic’s freelancer visa, is one of the most difficult visas to get in Europe. It has extensive requirements. For example, before applying, applicants have to get a trade license for any of these jobs, which they have to undertake in addition to their remote job. They also have to pass an immigration interview.

  • Cost: Free
  • Length: 1 year, but can be extended
  • Minimum income required: €5,587 in the bank for each person applying. You also need proof of accommodation for at least a year, and you have to pay about €70 in local taxes every month.
  • Cost of living ranking: 59 out of 137

4. Georgia

Georgia doesn’t have a digital normal visa per se, but travelers from around 95 countries (including the US and EU) can stay in the country for up to 365 days.

  • Cost: Free
  • Length: 1 year. If you register a business, you could end up with permanent residency.
  • Minimum income required: $2,000 per month or a bank statement with at least $24,000
  • Cost of living ranking: 91 out of 137

5. Iceland

The country’s long-term visa for remote workers is only open to applicants who have not had any other long-term visa issued in the year before their application. Also, applicants must be from outside the EU/European Economic Area (EEA)/European Free Trade Association (EFTA).

  • Cost: 12,200 ISK (Icelandic Krona)
  • Length: 6 months, or 90 days if applied for while applicant is staying in the Schengen area
  • Minimum income required: 1 million ISK for single applicants or 1.3 million ISK for couples
  • Cost of living ranking: 5 out of 137

6. Croatia

The Croatian digital nomad visa was launched in 2021, as part of the “Croatia, your new office” campaign. It’s available to digital nomads and their close family members.

  • Cost: Between 350 HRK (Croatian Kuna) and 460 HRK depending on application method
  • Length: maximum of 1 year, non-extendable. Applicants can submit a new application after 6 months, though.
  • Minimum income required: 17,822.50 HRK per month or 213,870 per year. These amounts increase by 10% for each family member.
  • Cost of living ranking: 60 out of 137

7. Spain

Most digital nomads in Spain use the Non-Lucrative Visa, which is more for retired or self-sufficient people. 

  • Cost: €140
  • Length: 1 year, renewable
  • Minimum income required: €2,151 per month
  • Cost of living ranking: 53 out of 137

Nonetheless, the country is now working on a specific visa for digital nomads. The visa will allow people to stay and work in Spain for 12 months, and up to 24 months. 

With the new visa, digital nomads will be required to pay a 24% tax on the first €60,000 they make during their first 183 days in the country.

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8. Portugal

Portugal has an entrepreneurs and independent workers visa that can be used to gain permanent residency.

  • Cost: €83 and €72 resident permit fee
  • Length: 1 year to 5 years, after which a person can apply for permanent residency
  • Minimum income required: €600 per month, which can come from various sources
  • Cost of living ranking; 66 out of 137

9. Norway

Norway offers an independent contractor visa. That said, it’s important to note that the country has a high cost of living.

  • Cost: €600
  • Length: 6 months to 3 years
  • Minimum income required: €35,719 as well as proof of accommodation
  • Cost of living ranking: 6 out of 137

10. Malta

The Nomad Residency Permit, Malta’s digital nomad visa, is only available to non-EU remote workers.

  • Cost: €300 per applicant
  • Length: 1 year, renewable
  • Minimum income required: €2,700 as well as a property purchase or rental accommodation contract
  • Cost of living ranking: 36 out of 137

11. Greece

Greece has a digital nomad visa for non-EU/EEA citizens, which allows people who work for foreign employers or those with their own foreign registered companies to live and work in the country.

  • Cost: €75
  • Length: 1 year, but can be extended twice to a total of 3 years
  • Minimum income required: €3,500 per month, plus 20% for a partner and 15% for each child
  • Cost of living ranking: 46 out of 137

12. Hungary

The Hungary visa is called the “White Card.” It’s similar to the country’s Type D visa and it’s available to non-EU remote workers, investors, and entrepreneurs. Single people under the age of 40 are this visa’s primary target.

  • Cost: €110 per applicant
  • Length: 1 year, but can be extended for another year
  • Minimum income required: €2,000 per month, plus proof of income for the 6 months prior to the application date
  • Cost of living ranking: 94 out of 137

13. Romania

Romania approved its visa on December 21, 2021. Initially, the visa required a person to earn the average salary in the country (about €1,100), but it’s now pegged at three times that amount.

  • Cost: The Romanian government has not confirmed the fee
  • Length: 1 year, but can be extended for an extra year
  • Minimum income required: €3,300 per month
  • Cost of living ranking: 90 out of 137

14. Latvia

The Latvia digital nomad visa is only available to nationals from an Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) country. Applicants must also be working for a company registered in or recognized by an OECD country.

  • Cost: €60 or €120 for an expedited visa
  • Length: 1 year, but can be extended for an extra year
  • Minimum income required: 2.5 times the average annual income in Latvia
  • Cost of living ranking: 58 out of 137
Digital nomad countries in the Caribbean

15. Anguilla

Anguilla’s visa program was designed to encourage long-stay travel in the country. It’s targeted towards remote workers and digital nomads,  as well as families and students.   

  • Cost: $2,000 per individual and $3,000 per family of up to four people. After that, each additional family member has to pay $250.
  • Length: 91 days to 12 months
  • Minimum income required: Not specified
  • Cost of living: Relatively expensive. A person will need around 4,500 per month.

16. Antigua and Barbuda

The island nation’s digital nomad visa is called the Antigua Nomad Digital Residence.

  • Cost: $1,500 per individual, $2,000 per couple, $3,000 for a family of three or more
  • Length: 2 years
  • Minimum income required: $50,000 per year
  • Cost of living: On average, 10.21% higher than in the US

17. Barbados

The Barbados Welcome Stamp is the nation’s digital nomad program. Although the visa is quite expensive to get, it’s cheap compared to the other visas offered by Caribbean countries.

  • Cost: $2,000 per individual and $3,000 per couple or family
  • Length: 1 year
  • Minimum income required: $50,000 per year
  • Cost of living ranking: 4 out of 137

18. The Cayman Islands

The Cayman Islands Global Citizen Concierge Program is aimed at high-level executives who work remotely. It allows people to work from any of the three islands for two years. People who hold this visa can also travel in and out of the islands as much as they like.

  • Cost: $1,469, annual certificate fee of $1,469 for up to 2 people, $500 annual certificate fee for each dependent, plus 7% credit card processing fee
  • Length: 2 years
  • Minimum income required: $100,000 per year for an individual, $150,000 per year for a couple, $180,000 per year for a family
  • Cost of living: Relatively expensive. On average, 40.55% higher than in the US

19. Bermuda

Bermuda’s cost of living is high, so the Work from Bermuda visa is suited to high-income individuals.

  • Cost: $263
  • Length: 1 year
  • Minimum income required: Enough to support yourself
  • Cost of living ranking: 1 out of 137

20. Montserrat

Montserrat has a visa program called the Montserrat Remote Work Stamp.

  • Cost: $500 per individual, $750 for a family with up to 3 dependants and $250 for each extra family member
  • Length: 1 year
  • Minimum income required: $70,000 per year
  • Cost of living: Relatively expensive. On average, a person will need $1,000 per month excluding rent

21. Dominica

The Work in Nature (WIN) program is Dominica’s digital nomad visa. It comes with income tax breaks and allows families to put their children in both state-owned and private schools.

  • Cost: $100 non-refundable application fee, plus $800 per individual or $1,200 for a family
  • Length: up to 18 months
  • Minimum income required: $70,000 per year
  • Cost of living: On average, a person will need $ 3,200 per month excluding rent

22. The Bahamas

With the Bahamas Extended Access Travel Stay (BEATS) program, digital nomads can work from any of the 16 tax-free islands.

  • Cost: $25 application fee, plus $1,000 for the applicant and $500 for each dependent
  • Length: 1 year, but can be renewed for up to 3 years
  • Minimum income required: An applicant needs proof of self-employment and income or a letter from their current employer
  • Cost of living ranking: 3 out of 137

23. Grenada

Grenada’s visa offers zero income tax.

  • Cost: $1,500 per individual, $2,000 for a family with 3 dependents, plus $200 for each additional dependent
  • Length: 1 year, but can be extended for an extra year
  • Cost of living: On average, 1.11% higher than in the US

24. Curaçao

The @Home in Curaçao program is available to digital nomads and their families for up to a year.

  • Cost: $294 per person
  • Length: 6 months, but can be extended for an additional 6 months
  • Minimum income required: Enough to support yourself
  • Cost of living: On average, 4.63% higher than in the US

25. Saint Lucia

The Saint Lucia Live It multiple entry visa comes with no minimum income requirements.

  • Cost: EC$190 (Eastern Caribbean Dollar)
  • Length: 1 year
  • Minimum income required: None
  • Cost of living: $1,042 per person per month, including rent. However, living in the city center costs twice as much as living outside the city center.
Digital nomad countries in the Americas

26. Mexico

Mexico doesn’t have a specific digital nomad visa. It does have a 6-month tourist visa which digital nomads can use, and it also has the Temporary Resident Visa, which can be renewed for up to four years. After four years, digital nomads who want to stay in the country long-term can apply for permanent residency.

  • Cost: $40 interview fee, plus between $150 and $350 to get the temporary resident permit card
  • Length: 1 year, but renewable up to 4 years
  • Minimum income required: $1,620 a month or $27,000 in the bank.
  • Cost of living ranking: 88 out of 137

27. Costa Rica

Before the pandemic, Costa Rica had the Rentista visa for entrepreneurs and self-employed people. 

  • Cost: $250
  • Length: 2 years
  • Minimum income required: $2,500 per month over the 2 years prior to the visa application date, or $60,000 in a Costa Rican bank
  • Cost of living ranking: 61 out of 137

The country is now working on a digital nomad visa that will be valid for up to two years.

  • Cost: Not yet known
  • Length: 1 year with the ability to extend by another year
  • Minimum income required: $3,000 per month per individual or $5,000 per month for a couple or a family

28. Panama

Panama’s digital nomad visa is called the Short Stay Visa for Remote Workers.

  • Cost: $300
  • Length: 9 months, but can be extended for an extra 9 months
  • Minimum income required: $36,000
  • Cost of living ranking: 49 out of 137
Digital nomad visa countries in africa

29. Mauritius

Mauritius’ digital nomad visa is called the Premium Visa.

  • Cost: Free
  • Length: 1 year
  • Minimum income required: $1,500 per applicant, plus $500 per month for each dependent below 24 years of age
  • Cost of living ranking: 72 out of 137

30. Cape Verde (Cabo Verde)

Anyone from North America, Europe, the Economic Community of West African States (CEDEAO), or the Community of Portuguese Speaking Countries (CPLP) can apply for the Cabo Verde Remote Working Program.

  • Cost: $65 per person, non-refundable 
  • Length: 6 months, but can be renewed for an extra 6 months
  • Minimum income required: €1,500 per month for the 6 months before the application date
  • Cost of living: Around $700 per person per month, including rent

31. Seychelles

The Seychelles “Workcation” Program allows digital nomads to work from any of the 115 islands that make up Seychelles.

  • Cost: €45 per applicant
  • Length: 1 year
  • Minimum income required: Not stipulated
  • Cost of living ranking: On average,12.66% lower than in the US
Digital nomad visa areas in the Middle East and Asia

32. Cyprus

The Cyprus visa program was initially limited to issuing only 100 temporary residency permits, but it’s now gone up to 500 permits.

  • Cost: €70 issuance fee, plus €70 to register to the Aliens’ registry
  • Length: 1 year, but can be renewed for up to 3 years
  • Minimum income required: €3,500 per month after taxes
  • Cost of living ranking: 42 out of 137

33. Dubai

Through Dubai’s One-year Virtual Working Program, remote workers can benefit from zero income tax.

  • Cost: $287
  • Length: 1 year
  • Minimum income required: $5,000 per month for the 3 months prior the visa application date, plus proof of company ownership or proof of employment with at least a 1-year contract
  • Cost of living: About $948 per person per month without rent

34. Taiwan

Taiwan doesn’t have a program specifically targeting digital nomads, but it has “The Gold Card,” which combines an open-ended work permit, an alien resident certificate, a resident visa, and a re-entry permit.  

  • Cost: $100 to $310
  • Length: 1 to 3 years
  • Minimum income required: $5,700 per month, but you don’t need this if you’re entering based on specific skills
  • Cost of living ranking: 37 out of 137

35. Sri Lanka

Although Sri Lanka doesn’t offer a specific digital nomad visa, it has simplified the process of getting tourist visa extensions for people who want to stay in the country longer.

  • Cost: $150 for a 90- to 180-day extension, $200 for a 180- to 270-day extension
  • Length: Extensions of up to 270 days
  • Cost of living ranking: 136 out of 137

More countries are also creating digital nomad visas. These include Italy, North Macedonia, Brazil, Serbia, Belize, South Africa, Montenegro, Colombia, Thailand, and Indonesia (Bali).

Here’s what we know so far about some of the visas on the way:

Italy

The visa will only be for highly skilled workers:

  • Requirements: Tax compliant in Italy before applying, adequate accommodation, health insurance
  • Length: 1 year, renewable
  • Cost of living ranking: 34 out of 137 

Serbia

This visa will be more expensive compared to visas from neighboring countries like Croatia and Romania.

  • Length: 1 year
  • Minimum income required: €3,500, but with a tax break exempting digital nomads from paying tax for the first 90 days of their stay.
  • Cost of living ranking: 100 out of 137

Montenegro

The Montenegro digital nomad visa is set to be launched sometime in 2022.

  • Expected cost: €25
  • Cost of living ranking: 93 out of 137

Thailand

Thailand’s Smart Visa is currently only available to investors, startup entrepreneurs, and executives. However, it will soon start including remote workers and digital nomads, allowing them to work and live in the country for up to four years.

Additionally, the Thai government is working on the Thailand Long-term Residency (LTR) Visa—a 10-year renewable visa. This visa is aimed at wealthy digital nomads, remote workers, and retired professionals.

Applicants must have made a personal income of $80,000 per year in the two years before they apply for the visa, and they need health insurance with $50,000 coverage. If they have earned between $40,000 and $80,000 per year during the two years prior to the application date, they must meet certain criteria like having intellectual property or a master’s degree.

  • Cost of living ranking: 77 out of 137
Thailand LTR visa benefits

Indonesia: Bali

The Bali visa will allow digital nomads to live in the country for up to five years, tax-free.

  • Cost of living ranking: 105 out of 137

Brazil

Brazil’s digital nomad visa was published on January 24, 2022. It will be for entrepreneurs, remote workers, and freelancers.

  • Cost: About $100/€100 for most countries
  • Length: 1 year, but can be renewed for an extra year
  • Minimum income required: $1,500 per month
  • Cost of living ranking: 92 out of 137

Colombia

Colombia is expected to launch its visa in October 2022. The country will likely become a significant digital nomad hub thanks to the low cost of living and very low minimum income requirement.

  • Minimum income required: $684/month
  • Cost of living ranking: 131 out of 137

North Macedonia and Belize both announced their digital nomad visa plans in February 2021.  

Embracing the digital lifestyle  

Searches for “digital nomad visa” have gone up by a massive 2,500% in the last five years. This number will likely continue to rise as more employees adopt a more flexible work approach.

But navigating the location-independent way of working can be hard. You have to juggle things like cross-border compliance, multi-country payroll, and localized benefits. This is where a partner like Oyster comes in.

About Oyster

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People Builders is an exclusive community that serves the needs of People professionals and leaders dedicated to building people-centric organizations in a globally distributed world of work.

How does the annual subscription work?

People Builders is an exclusive community that serves the needs of People professionals and leaders dedicated to building people-centric organizations in a globally distributed world of work.

How does the annual subscription work?

People Builders is an exclusive community that serves the needs of People professionals and leaders dedicated to building people-centric organizations in a globally distributed world of work.

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